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Medical Management of Eating Disorders
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Medical Management of Eating Disorders (Cambridge Medicine (Paperback)),C. Lai | eBay
Complete information. Returns policy. Take a look at our Returning an item help page for more details. You're covered by the eBay Money Back Guarantee if you receive an item that is not as described in the listing. Most purchases from business sellers are protected by the Consumer Contract Regulations which give you the right to cancel the purchase within 14 days after the day you receive the item. The Church also established a network of cathedral schools and universities where medicine was studied.
The Schola Medica Salernitana in Salerno, looking to the learning of Greek and Arab physicians, grew to be the finest medical school in Medieval Europe.
However, the fourteenth and fifteenth century Black Death devastated both the Middle East and Europe, and it has even been argued that Western Europe was generally more effective in recovering from the pandemic than the Middle East. The major shift in medical thinking was the gradual rejection, especially during the Black Death in the 14th and 15th centuries, of what may be called the 'traditional authority' approach to science and medicine.
This was the notion that because some prominent person in the past said something must be so, then that was the way it was, and anything one observed to the contrary was an anomaly which was paralleled by a similar shift in European society in general — see Copernicus 's rejection of Ptolemy 's theories on astronomy. Physicians like Vesalius improved upon or disproved some of the theories from the past.
The main tomes used both by medicine students and expert physicians were Materia Medica and Pharmacopoeia. Andreas Vesalius was the author of De humani corporis fabrica , an important book on human anatomy. Later this was described by Renaldus Columbus and Andrea Cesalpino.
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Herman Boerhaave is sometimes referred to as a "father of physiology" due to his exemplary teaching in Leiden and textbook 'Institutiones medicae' Pierre Fauchard has been called "the father of modern dentistry". Veterinary medicine was, for the first time, truly separated from human medicine in , when the French veterinarian Claude Bourgelat founded the world's first veterinary school in Lyon, France. Before this, medical doctors treated both humans and other animals. Modern scientific biomedical research where results are testable and reproducible began to replace early Western traditions based on herbalism, the Greek " four humours " and other such pre-modern notions.
The modern era really began with Edward Jenner 's discovery of the smallpox vaccine at the end of the 18th century inspired by the method of inoculation earlier practiced in Asia , Robert Koch 's discoveries around of the transmission of disease by bacteria, and then the discovery of antibiotics around The postth century modernity period brought more groundbreaking researchers from Europe. As science and technology developed, medicine became more reliant upon medications. Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century, not only animal and plant products were used as medicine, but also human body parts and fluids.
The first antibiotic was arsphenamine Salvarsan discovered by Paul Ehrlich in after he observed that bacteria took up toxic dyes that human cells did not. The first major class of antibiotics was the sulfa drugs , derived by German chemists originally from azo dyes. Pharmacology has become increasingly sophisticated; modern biotechnology allows drugs targeted towards specific physiological processes to be developed, sometimes designed for compatibility with the body to reduce side-effects.
Genomics and knowledge of human genetics and human evolution is having increasingly significant influence on medicine, as the causative genes of most monogenic genetic disorders have now been identified, and the development of techniques in molecular biology , evolution , and genetics are influencing medical technology, practice and decision-making. Evidence-based medicine is a contemporary movement to establish the most effective algorithms of practice ways of doing things through the use of systematic reviews and meta-analysis.
The movement is facilitated by modern global information science , which allows as much of the available evidence as possible to be collected and analyzed according to standard protocols that are then disseminated to healthcare providers. The Cochrane Collaboration leads this movement. A review of Cochrane systematic reviews revealed that, according to two readers, Evidence-based medicine , prevention of medical error and other " iatrogenesis " , and avoidance of unnecessary health care are a priority in modern medical systems.
These topics generate significant political and public policy attention, particularly in the United States where healthcare is regarded as excessively costly but population health metrics lag similar nations. Globally, many developing countries lack access to care and access to medicines. Traditional medicine also known as indigenous or folk medicine comprises knowledge systems that developed over generations within various societies before the introduction of modern medicine.
The World Health Organization WHO defines traditional medicine as "the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness. When adopted outside of its traditional culture, traditional medicine is often called alternative medicine. The WHO notes however that "inappropriate use of traditional medicines or practices can have negative or dangerous effects" and that "further research is needed to ascertain the efficacy and safety" of several of the practices and medicinal plants used by traditional medicine systems.
Traditional medicine may include formalized aspects of folk medicine, that is to say longstanding remedies passed on and practised by lay people.
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Folk medicine consists of the healing practices and ideas of body physiology and health preservation known to some in a culture, transmitted informally as general knowledge, and practiced or applied by anyone in the culture having prior experience. These terms are often considered interchangeable, even though some authors may prefer one or the other because of certain overtones they may be willing to highlight.
In fact, out of these terms perhaps only indigenous medicine and traditional medicine have the same meaning as folk medicine , while the others should be understood rather in a modern or modernized context. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 27 November This article is about the science of healing. For medicaments, see medication. For other uses, see Medicine disambiguation.