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We do not only speak, rather we act. The Islamic Republic's assistance to its Muslim brothers has mostly been given to Sunnis.


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We have stood beside the Palestinians. We have stood beside the religious people of regional countries because we know that today, the issue of unity is at the top of Islamic issues. I advise and I insist that well-known ulama, outstanding personalities and politicians of the world of Islam do not speak so much about discord and disunity. Some people in the world are spending money in order to promote Islamophobia and damage the reputation of Islam.

Chapter 11: Unity and Diversity in Islam by Mohammad Rasjidi

And we ourselves are trying to damage one another's reputation and frighten people of one another. This is against wisdom and politics. I have heard that some regional governments have based their foreign policy on confronting Iran. Why should they do this? This is against reason. This is against wisdom. This is an idiotic course of action.

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Why should someone make such a great mistake? On the contrary, we have based our foreign policy on camaraderie, brotherhood and friendly relationship with all Muslim and regional countries, whether those which are our neighbors and those which are not. This is our policy. We have acted in the same way until now and we will act in the same way in the future. Thankfully today, the people of Iran have gained such a deep awareness that they know the future interest of their country depends on Islamic unity with other Muslim nations and countries.

Of course, some people are trying very hard to create obstacles in the way of this unity, to arouse suspicions and to temp the people, but our people have thankfully understood this today. The cry of our magnanimous Imam r. This is the responsibility of everyone. Today, all Muslims throughout the world should think about the Islamic Ummah and Islamic unity.

If we think of the Islamic Ummah, the interests of our countries will be safeguarded as well. The interest of the enemy lies in separating us from one another. His interest lies in attacking one country and raising an army with the help of another country.

Leadership & Unity in Islam

His interest lies in this. We should not allow him to do this. Who is the enemy? The enemy is American capitalism and global arrogance which is headed today by America and the Zionists. The Zionist government in occupied Palestine is part of the dangerous group and the deadly cancer which the Zionists have created in the world. We should stand up against them. We should refer to Islam and Quranic texts in order to stand up against them.

Sometimes, one takes a look at some writings and sees that some people write certain things which are not based on Quranic ayahs.

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After the Holy Quran speaks about the conditions that Muslims should believe in, it says, "So if they believe as you believe, they are indeed on the right path" [The Holy Quran, 2: ]. He is a thing, but he is not like other things; he is omniscient, all-powerful, but his omniscience and his all-mightiness cannot be compared to anything created. He created the world without any pre-established archetype and without an auxiliary.

According to Henry Corbin , the result of this interpretation is the negation of the divine attributes, the affirmation of the created Quran, and the denial of all possibility of the vision of God in the world beyond. The solution proposed by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari to solve the problems of tashbih and ta'til concedes that the divine Being possesses in a real sense the Attributes and Names mentioned in the Qur'an.

Insofar as these Names and Attributes have a positive reality, they are distinct from the essence, but nevertheless they do not have either existence or reality apart from it. The inspiration of al-Ash'ari in this matter was on the one hand to distinguish essence and attribute as concepts, and on the other hand to see that the duality between essence and attribute should be situated not on the quantitative but on the qualitative level—something which Mu'tazilis thinking had failed to grasp.

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Ash'ari theology, which dominated Sunni Islam from the tenth to the nineteenth century, insists on ultimate divine transcendence and holds that divine unity is not accessible to human reason. Ash'arism teaches that human knowledge regarding it is limited to what was has been revealed through the prophets, and on such questions as God's creation of evil and the apparent anthropomorphism of God's attributes, revelation has to accepted bila kayfa without [asking] how.

Twelvers theology is based on the Hadith which have been narrated from the Islamic prophet Muhammad , the first , fifth , sixth , seventh and eighth Imams and compiled by Shia scholars such as Al-Shaykh al-Saduq in al-Tawhid. Any suggestion of these attributes and names being conceived of as separate is thought to entail polytheism. It would be even incorrect to say God knows by his knowledge which is in his essence but God knows by his knowledge which is his essence. Also God has no physical form and he is insensible. Twelvers believe God is alone in being, along with his names, his attributes, his actions, his theophanies.

The totality of being therefore is he, through him, comes from him, and returns to him. God is not a being next to or above other beings, his creatures; he is being, the absolute act of being wujud mutlaq. For, if there were being other than he i. Every supernatural action of the prophets is by God's permission as Quran points to it. The border between the Tawhid and Shirk in practice is to assume something as an end in itself, independent from God, not as a road to God to Him-ness.

Al-Farabi , Al-Razi and especially Avicenna put forward an interpretation of Tawhid in light of reason, with the Qur'an and Hadith serving as a basis. Before Avicenna the discussions among Muslim philosophers were about the unity of God as divine creator and his relationship with the world as creation.


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The earlier philosophers were profoundly affected by the emphasis of Plotinus on Divine simplicity. In Islamic mysticism Sufism and Irfan , Tawhid is not only the affirmation in speech of God's unity, but also as importantly a practical and existential realization of that unity.

This is done by rejecting the concepts tied to the world of multiplicity, to isolate the eternal from the temporal in a practical way. The ideal is a radical purification from all worldliness.

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Cornall, it is possible to draw up a monist image of God see Sufi metaphysics by describing the reality as a unified whole, with God being a single concept that would describe or ascribe all existing things: "He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Immanent: and He has full knowledge of all things.

For Muslim mystics sufis , the affirmation in speech of God's unity is only the first step of Tawhid. Further steps involve a spiritual experience for the existential realization of that unity. Categorizations of different steps of Tawhid could be found in the works of Muslims Sufis like Junayd Baghdadi and al-Ghazali.

It involves a practical rejection of the concepts tied to the world of multiplicity. According to the concept of Fana , Annihilation and Subsistence, "Man's existence, or ego, or self-hood All of man's character traits and habits, everything that pertains to his individual existence must become completely naughted and "obliterated" mahw.

Then God will give back to him his character traits and everything positive he ever possessed. But at this stage, he will know consciously and actually - not just theoretically - and with a through spiritual realization, that everything he is derives absolutely from God. He is nothing but a ray of God's Attributes manifesting the Hidden Treasure.

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The first detailed formulation of "Unity of Existence" wahdat al-wujud is closely associated to Ibn Arabi. Ibn Arabi himself didn't use the term "Unity of Existence" and similar statements had been made by those before him. For example, according to al-Ghazali "There is nothing in wujud [existence] except God Wujud [Existence] only belongs to the Real One". Ghazali explains that the fruit of spiritual ascent of the Sufi is to "witness that there is no existence in the world save God and that 'All things are perishing except his face' Qur'an " [61] [62].

Many authors consider being or existence to be the proper designation for the reality of God. While all Muslims believe the reality of God to be one, critics hold that the term "existence" wujud is also used for the existence of things in this world and that the doctrine blurs the distinction between the existence of the creator and that of the creation. Defenders argued that Ibn Arabi and his followers are offering a "subtle metaphysics following the line of the Asharite formula: "The attributes are neither God nor other than God.


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Understood correctly, wahdat al-wujud elucidates the delicate balance that needs to be maintained between these two perspectives. The Islamic doctrine of Tawhid puts forth a God whose rule, will or law are comprehensive and extend to all creatures and to all aspects of the human life. Early Muslims understood religion to thus cover the domains of state, law and society. According to the Qur'an, one consequence of properly conceived relationship between God and man as the served and servant, is the proper relationship among humans.

In order to achieve the former, the Qur'an consistently "reminds" men of two points: 1. That God is one; everything except God including the entirety of nature is contingent upon God. With all His might and glory, God is essentially the all-merciful God. According to the Qur'an, Allah is the progenitor of all things, both good and evil. According to the Qur'an, Satan deviated from the oneness of Allah in the story of creation of man by permitting his own hierarchical value system to supersede Allah's will: Allah asked the angels to bow to Adam, who he had created from clay.

Satan refused, saying that "I am better than him; you created me from fire and created him from clay". The Medieval Muslim scholar , Al-Ghazali pointing out that the only legitimate "preference principle" in the sight of Allah is piety, writes: "Every time a rich man believes that he is better than a poor one, or a white man believes that he is better than a black one, then he is being arrogant.

He is adopting the same hierarchical principles adopted by Iblis [Satan] in his jahl [ignorance], and thus falling into shirk [opposite of Tawhid].