Lipodystrophy complications, including lipoatrophy pathological fat loss and metabolic complications, have emerged as important long-term toxicities associated with antiretroviral therapy in the current era. The wealth of data that has accumulated over the past 6 years has now clarified the contribution of specific antiretroviral drugs to the risk of these clinical endpoints, with evidence that lipoatrophy is strongly associated with the choice of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy specifically, stavudine and to a lesser extent zidovudine.
The aetiological basis of metabolic complications of antiretroviral therapy has proven to be complex, in that the risk appears to be modulated by a number of lifestyle factors that have made the metabolic syndrome highly prevalent in the general population, with additional contributions from HIV disease status itself, as well as from individual drugs within the HIV protease inhibitor class. The currently licensed non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor NNRTI drugs, efavirenz and nevirapine, have been proven to have a favourable safety profile in terms of lipodystrophy complications.
The effectiveness and safety of topical PhotoActif phosphatidylcholine-based anti- cellulite gel and LED red and near-infrared light on Grade II-III thigh cellulite : a randomized, double-blinded study. Cellulite of the upper lateral and posterior thighs and lower buttocks represents a common, physiological and unwanted condition whose etiologies and effective management are subjects of continued debate. The purpose of this controlled, double-blinded study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel phosphatidylcholine-based, cosmeceutical anti- cellulite gel combined with a light-emitting diode LED array at the wavelengths of red nm and near-infrared nm , designed to counter the possible mechanisms that purportedly accentuate the presence of thigh cellulite.
Nine healthy female volunteers with Grade II-III thigh cellulite were randomly treated twice daily with an active gel on one thigh and a placebo gel on the control thigh for 3 months. Twice weekly, each thigh was exposed for a minute treatment with LED light for a total of 24 treatments. In selected patients, full-thickness biopsies of the placebo and active-treated sites were obtained. At 18 months, repeat standardized digital photography, height and weight measurements, and body mass index measurements were obtained.
At the end of 3 months, eight of nine thighs treated with the phosphatidylcholine-based, anti- cellulite gel and LED treatments were downgraded to a lower cellulite grade by clinical examination, digital photography, and pinch test assessment. Digital ultrasound at the dermal-adiposal interface demonstrated not only a statistically significant reduction of immediate hypodermal depth, but also less echo-like intrusions into the dermal layer.
Three of six biopsies from thighs treated for 3 months with. Introduction: Despite a growing popularity of noninvasive ultrasonic lipolysis procedure, there is a lack of evidence about the efficacy of this method. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of focused ultrasonic lipolysis on abdominal cellulite treatment. Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive subjects age: Largest abdominal girth and 2 lines at 4 cm to 7 cm distance above and under it were located as fixed points of measurements. The mean value of the three fixed lines was considered as the abdominal circumference.
Subjects were evaluated using measurements of circumference, immediately after and 3 weeks after the final treatment and compared using paired t test. Results: One hundred ninety-four ultrasonic lipolysis procedures were performed on 28 subjects. A statistically significant P cellulite , although some amount of circumference reduction reversal may be observed in long term follow-up visit. Potential roles for uncoupling proteins in HIV lipodystrophy. Lipoatrophy appears to represent an adipose tissue-specific form of mitochondrial toxicity associated strongly with stavudine NRTI therapy, whilst the 'metabolic syndrome' phenotype is associated with HIV protease inhibitor therapy.
In this context, the role of uncoupling proteins UCPs in modulating resting energy expenditure in response to elevated fatty acid flux associated with the 'metabolic syndrome' is supported by clinical data as well as findings of elevated adipose tissue UCP expression. The role of UCPs in this syndrome therefore exemplifies the multifactorial nature of these antiretroviral therapy complications. Evaluation of a noninvasive, dual-wavelength laser-suction and massage device for the regional treatment of cellulite.
Cellulite is a condition usually limited to women. The most common location for this surface irregularity is the thigh.
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Evaluation of treatment efficacy is difficult because of the reliance on patient satisfaction surveys and flash photography, which can "flatten" surface texture. Reproducibility of photographs is also difficult, as subtle changes in body position can affect appearance. Twenty women with mild to moderate cellulite of their lateral thighs were enrolled. Pretreatment and posttreatment assessment included patient weight, body mass index, percentage body fat, standard digital photographs, VECTRA three-dimensional images, and patient questionnaire. Patients received two treatments per week for 4 weeks.
Treatment time was 15 minutes per thigh using the SmoothShapes device. Patients were evaluated 1, 3, and 6 months after their last treatment. To be considered improved after treatment, both thighs needed clear improvement in contour as determined by the "untextured" images obtained with the VECTRA camera system. This device depicts skin contour independent of incident lighting. There were no complications. Seventeen patients had complete data for analysis. Ninety-four percent of the patients felt their cellulite was improved.
VECTRA analysis showed 82 percent improvement at 1 month, 76 percent improvement at 3 months, and 76 percent improvement at 6 months. Initial cellulite irregularities and improvement were more difficult to discern using standard digital photographs. There was an average increase in patient weight, body mass index, and percentage body fat at 6 months. The SmoothShapes device provided improvement in surface contour cellulite 6 months after the last treatment in the majority of the patients based on patient survey and VECTRA analysis.
Treatment of cellulite with a bipolar radiofrequency, infrared heat, and pulsatile suction device: a pilot study.
PDF Grasso e Cellulite K.O. (Italian Edition)
Very few therapeutic options have proven effective in the treatment of cellulite. To evaluate the effectiveness and adverse effects of a bipolar radiofrequency RF , infrared IR heat and pulsatile suction device for the treatment of cellulite. Twelve subjects were treated with the RF-light-based device. All subjects were treated twice weekly for a total number of eight to nine treatments.
Subjects were evaluated using standardized photographs, and measurements of body weight and circumference of treatment sites at baseline, immediately after the last treatment, and four weeks and one year after the last treatment. The average body weights at baseline, immediately after the last treatment, and four weeks and one year after the complete treatment were The average circumferential reductions of the abdomen and thigh at the last treatment visit were 5. At four weeks after the last treatment, the average circumferential reductions of the abdomen and thigh were sustained at 3.
At one year follow-up visit, the average circumferential reductions of the abdomen and thigh were maintained at 3.
Average clinical improvement scores of the abdomen and thigh after the series of treatments were 0. A bipolar RF, IR heat and pulsatile suction device provides a beneficial effect on reduction of abdomen and thigh circumference, and.
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- Download PDF Grasso e Cellulite K.O. (Italian Edition).
- Irish Short Stories: The Little People.
Gender difference in the impact of gynoid and android fat masses on the progression of hepatic steatosis in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. However, little attention has been paid to the association between the change in subcutaneous adipose mass and the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD.
We aimed to investigate whether increased subcutaneous adipose tissue gynoid fat mass could be protective against the progression of NAFLD in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Liver attenuation index LAI measured by abdominal computed tomography was used for the assessment of hepatic steatosis. Both gynoid kg and android kg fat masses were measured by the whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. One-year changes in LAI, gynoid , and android fat masses were evaluated in both male and female patients. Linear regression analysis with a stepwise procedure was used for the statistical analyses to investigate the association of the changes in gynoid and android fat masses with the change in LAI.
LAI levels at baseline were 1. However, no significant association was observed in males. Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity PA , and high sedentary time ST. Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DXA have not been measured in children.
The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children 8. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content BMC and fat and lean mass of the total body TB, less head , android, and gynoid regions. Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile.
Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in. Painless, safe, and efficacious noninvasive skin tightening, body contouring, and cellulite reduction using multisource 3DEEP radiofrequency.
Synonyms and antonyms of k.o. in the Italian dictionary of synonyms
In the last decade, Radiofrequency RF energy has proven to be safe and highly efficacious for face and neck skin tightening, body contouring, and cellulite reduction. In this review, the basic science and clinical results of body contouring and cellulite treatment using multisource radiofrequency system Endymed PRO, Endymed, Cesarea, Israel will be discussed and analyzed.
Prediction of android and gynoid body adiposity via a three-dimensional stereovision body imaging system and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Objective Current methods for measuring regional body fat are expensive and inconvenient compared to the relative cost-effectiveness and ease-of-use of a stereovision body imaging SBI system. The primary goal of this research is to develop prediction models for android and gynoid fat by body measurements assessed via SBI and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DXA.
Subsequently, mathematical equations for prediction of total and regional trunk, leg body adiposity were established via parameters measured by SBI and DXA. Methods A total of participants were randomly assigned into primary and cross-validation groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to develop mathematical equations by demographics and SBI assessed body measurements as independent variables and body adiposity fat mass and percent fat as dependent variables.
The validity of the prediction models was evaluated by a split sample method and Bland-Altman analysis. Results The R2 of the prediction equations for fat mass and percent body fat were Prediction values for fat mass and percent fat were Conclusions The three-dimensional 3D SBI produces reliable parameters that can predict android and gynoid , as well as total and regional trunk, leg fat mass. Current methods for measuring regional body fat are expensive and inconvenient compared to the relative cost-effectiveness and ease of use of a stereovision body imaging SBI system.
A total of participants were randomly assigned into primary and cross-validation groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to develop mathematical equations by demographics and SBI assessed body measurements as independent variables and body adiposity fat mass and percentage fat as dependent variables. The R 2 of the prediction equations for fat mass and percentage body fat were The limits of agreement for the fat mass and percentage fat were Prediction values for fat mass and percentage fat were The three-dimensional 3D SBI produces reliable parameters that can predict android and gynoid as well as total and regional trunk, leg fat mass.
Progranulin is increased in human and murine lipodystrophy.